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Re: substitution "read all from fd" silently fails: $(<&0)

From: Pádraig Brady
Subject: Re: substitution "read all from fd" silently fails: $(<&0)
Date: Thu, 02 Jul 2015 04:27:35 +0100
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:31.0) Gecko/20100101 Thunderbird/31.6.0

On 01/07/15 22:48, Stephane Chazelas wrote:
> 2015-07-01 22:19:10 +0300, Ilya Basin:
>> Hi list.
>> Want to read whole stdin into variable.
>> Don't want to spawn new processes (cat).
> [...]
> Note that
> $(<file) does spawn a new process, it's just that bash doesn't
> execute /bin/cat in that process, it does the reading (from
> file) and writing (to the pipe) by itself (and the parent reads
> from the other end of the pipe to make-up the substitution).
> ksh (ksh93 and mksh) and zsh do not spawn a process in the
> $(<file) case.

For completeness dash ignores this format so it's quite non portable

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