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The builtin array variable 'FUNCNAME' is considered unset by many expans

From: Great Big Dot
Subject: The builtin array variable 'FUNCNAME' is considered unset by many expansions, even when set.
Date: Thu, 8 Nov 2018 01:15:56 -0500

Configuration Information [Automatically generated, do not change]:
Machine: x86_64
OS: linux-gnu
Compiler: gcc
Compilation CFLAGS:  -DPROGRAM='bash' -DCONF_HOSTTYPE='x86_64'
-DCONF_OSTYPE='linux-gnu' -DCONF_MACHTYPE='x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu'
-DCONF_VENDOR='unknown' -DLOCALEDIR='/usr/share/locale' -DPACKAGE='bash'
-DSHELL -DHAVE_CONFIG_H   -I.  -I. -I./include -I./lib  -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2
-march=x86-64 -mtune=generic -O2 -pipe -fstack-protector-strong -fno-plt
-DSTANDARD_UTILS_PATH='/usr/bin' -DSYS_BASHRC='/etc/bash.bashrc'
-Wno-parentheses -Wno-format-security
uname output: Linux ArchBox0 4.18.16-arch1-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Oct 20
22:06:45 UTC 2018 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Machine Type: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu

Bash Version: 4.4
Patch Level: 23
Release Status: release

The builtin array variable FUNCNAME (which provides a way to trace the
stack of functions called so far) appears to be unset according to certain
bash expansions, even when it isn't. If the following code is saved to a
file and executed (this doesn't work at the command line), the problems
begin to appear:

    printf -- '%q\n' "${FUNCNAME}"
    printf -- '%q\n' "${FUNCNAME[0]}"
    printf -- '%q\n' "${FUNCNAME[*]}"

This yields:


For some reason, FUNCNAME appears to be either empty or unset, though it is
supposed to default to FUNCNAME[0]. In fact, if you turn on `set -u`, the
first line of output becomes:

    ./script:1: FUNCNAME: unbound variable

So it's viewed as unset, not merely the empty string. Any other array
outputs 'main' on all three lines. But it gets worse:

    printf -- '%s\n' "${FUNCNAME[*]}"
    declare -p -- FUNCNAME


    declare -a FUNCNAME

That is, `declare -p`---which I figured would be the canonical authority on
a variable and all its properties---gives a completely wrong answer.
Namely, it says that FUNCNAME is unset, albeit declared as a linear array.
It *should* output 'declare -a FUNCNAME=([0]="main")'.

As far as I can tell, FUNCNAME is the only variable that behaves this way;
in particular, the other builtin variables provided for stack tracing,
BASH_LINENO and BASH_SOURCE, behave exactly like every other array. In
fact, if you unset FUNCNAME (which, according to the manual, strips its
special properties) and reset it to `FUNCNAME=('main')`, the above (and
ensuing) anomalies do not occur.

The problems run much deeper than the above examples. When I tried to
figure out what was causing it, I only ran into more nonsensical behavior.
I ended up making a brief script that lists a bunch of different anomalous
behaviors in a (somewhat) organized format; a link to a "GitHub gist" is
below. Among other things, we have this inexplicable arbitrariness (again,
only works if saved to a file and executed):

    printf -- '%q\n' "${FUNCNAME[*]}"
    printf -- '%q\n' "${FUNCNAME[*]/x/x}"
    printf -- '%q\n' "${FUNCNAME[*]#x}"



That is, substring-replacement works, but substring removal doesn't,
despite the array clearly being set. On any other array, it works correctly
in both instances. It gets much weirder, and additional notes are in the
comments of the script---though I still have no clue what's causing this.


Save this script to a file, make it executable, and run it:


The output should make it pretty clear what expansions are taking place,
but see the comments for descriptions of the expected behavior and further
discussion. In particular, there are lots of expansions that follow the
same general patterns as the ones included in the script, but left out for
conciseness; see the comments for those. (I will update the gist if any of
what I said turns out to be wrong.)


It is possible to access the variable normally, but there are a ton of
random pitfalls. That being said, if you're careful to be conservative with
your expansions and explicit with your subscripts, and if you don't trust
`declare -p`, I think everything should go fine.

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