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[PATCH] Exit status by no-argument `return' for function calls in trap h


From: Koichi Murase
Subject: [PATCH] Exit status by no-argument `return' for function calls in trap handlers
Date: Fri, 17 Apr 2020 02:21:09 +0900

Configuration Information [Automatically generated, do not change]:
Machine: x86_64
OS: linux-gnu
Compiler: gcc
Compilation CFLAGS: -O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Werror=format-security
  -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -Wp,-D_GLIBCXX_ASSERTIONS -fexceptions
  -fstack-protector-strong -grecord-gcc-switches
  -specs=/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/redhat-hardened-cc1
  -specs=/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/redhat-annobin-cc1 -m64 -mtune=generic
  -fasynchronous-unwind-tables -fstack-clash-protection -fcf-protection
  -Wno-parentheses -Wno-format-security
uname output: Linux chatoyancy 5.1.20-300.fc30.x86_64 #1 SMP Fri Jul
  26 15:03:11 UTC 2019 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Machine Type: x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu

Bash Version: 5.0
Patch Level: 11
Release Status: release

Summary:

  The behavior of no-argument `return' in trap handlers has been
  changed from Bash 4.4 to follow the description of POSIX.  Recently
  this behavior caused problems in my Bash script.  I am wondering
  whether this change actually matches with the behavior meant by
  POSIX because the change introduces unreasonable constraints in
  writing shell functions.

  For the condition of this special treatment of `return', POSIX says
  ``When return is executed in a trap action''.  Here are two possible
  interpretation: (A) `return's specified in the argument string of
  `trap' builtin are affected, or (B) all the `return's in entire
  runtime function-call tree in trap processing are affected.  I guess
  that POSIX wanted to provide a way to exit functions that received
  signals without changing the value of `$?'.  If that is the case,
  the POSIX should have meant (A).  However, the current Bash
  implementation behaves as if it follows the interpretation (B).

  I would like to hear what do you think of this.

Description:

  In the latest release of Bash 5.0.16 and in the current devel
  branch, when function calls in trap handlers are terminated by
  no-argument `return' builtin, the exit status is always the value of
  $? at the moment that the trap handler started.  This behavior was
  introduced in Bash 4.4.

  I noticed this behavior in debugging an infinite loop caused by
  SIGWINCH reported at https://github.com/akinomyoga/ble.sh/issues/48.
  The structure of the code related to the infinite loop can be
  summarized in the following small script.

  ----------------------------------------
  #!/bin/bash

  function check_loop_condition {
    if ((index++%10==0)); then
      echo index=$index
      ((index<100))
      return # *** return exit status of the previous command ***
    fi

    : do something
    return 0
  }

  function update {
    local index=0
    while check_loop_condition; do :; done
  }

  trap 'update' USR1
  kill -USR1 $$
  ----------------------------------------

  If the function `update' is called normally (outside of trap
  handlers), it will print the numbers {1..101..10} and terminate
  soon.  However, when it is called in trap handlers, it falls into an
  infinite loop in Bash 4.4+.  This is because the no-argument
  `return' in the function `check_loop_condition' always returns `$?'
  before the trap started regardless of the exit status of
  `((index<100))'.

  If all the `return's in the entire function-call tree are affected
  in trap processing as in the interpretation (B), one cannot reliably
  use no-argument `return' to return the last-command exit status.  To
  avoid the problem, one has to always write the exit status
  explicitly as `return $?', and there is no use case for no-argument
  `return' at all.  I don't think this is meant by POSIX which defines
  the behavior of no-argument `return' explicitly.  Or, maybe one
  cannot use shell functions in trap handlers.  Note that in my
  script, I need to re-render the terminal contents on SIGWINCH so
  that I need to run complicated shell programs implemented as shell
  functions.  POSIX does not prohibit the use of shell functions in
  trap handlers.

  Here I checked how the behavior was changed in Bash 4.4.  The
  related commits are 939d190e0 (commit bash-20140314 snapshot) and
  e2f12fdf5 (commit bash-20140321 snapshot).  The relevant ChangeLog
  is quoted as follows:

  >            3/11
  >            ----
  >
  > builtins/common.c
  >   - get_exitstat: when running `return' in a trap action, and it is not
  >     supplied an argument, use the saved exit status in
  >     trap_saved_exit_value.  Fixes Posix problem reported by
  >     Eduardo A. Bustamante L坦pez <address@hidden>
  >
  >
  >            3/18
  >            ----
  >
  > builtins/common.c
  >   - get_exitstat: update fix of 3/11 to allow the DEBUG trap to use the
  >     current value of $? instead of the value it had before the trap
  >     action was run.  This is one reason the DEBUG trap exists, and
  >     extended debug mode uses it.  Might want to do this only in Posix
  >     mode

  This change is made after the following discussion:

  https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/bug-bash/2014-03/msg00053.html

  Taking the following comment and the code example by the original
  reporter Eduardo, he seems to assume the interpretation (A), but
  what was actually implemented was the interpretation (B).

  > So as I read it, `action' refers to the whole string.

  Also, I have checked the behavior of other shells. `zsh', `ash'
  family (dash/ash, busybox sh) and `posh' does not implement the
  special treatment of `return' in trap handlers.  `ksh' family
  (ksh93, mksh) and `yash' implements the interpretation (B).  There
  is no existing implementation of (A).  But currently I still think
  the intepretation (A) is reasonable.  If there is rationale for the
  interpretation (B), I would like to know it.

Repeat-By:

  Here I provide a few test cases for the special treatment of
  no-argument `return'.  The following example demonstrates the
  behavior of no-argument `return' appearing directly in the trap
  argument.  The expected result is `exit=0' but not `exit=222' as
  `return' should return the exit status before the trap handler
  starts as required by POSIX.  Bash 4.3 and before outputs `exit=222'
  because it does not implement the special treatment.  Bash 4.4 and
  later ourputs `exit=0' as expected.

  ----------------------------------------
  #!/bin/bash

  setexit() { return "$1"; }
  trap 'setexit 222; return' USR1

  process() { kill -USR1 $$; }
  process
  echo exit=$?
  ----------------------------------------

  The next example also demonstrates the behavior of no-argument
  `return' directly specified in the trap argument.  The expected
  result is to print `exit=0'.  Bash 4.3 and earlier outputs
  `exit=123', and Bash 4.4 and later outputs `exit=0' as expected by
  POSIX.

  ----------------------------------------
  #!/bin/bash

  function setexit { return "$1"; }

  trap 'setexit 123; return' USR1

  function loop { while :; do :; done; }

  function get_loop_exit { loop; echo "exit=$?"; }

  { sleep 1; kill -USR1 $$; } &
  get_loop_exit
  ----------------------------------------

  The third example is the case for `return' in function calls in trap
  processing.  If we adopt the interpretation A (B), the expected
  result is `A' (`B').  Bash 4.3 and earlier outputs `A', and Bash 4.4
  and later outputs `B'.

  ----------------------------------------
  #!/bin/bash

  check() { false; return; }
  handle() { check && echo B || echo A; }
  trap handle USR1
  kill -USR1 $$
  ----------------------------------------

Fix:

  I attach a patch which changes the behavior to match with the more
  reasonable interpretation (A).  To detect the current nest level of
  returns, I initially thought about using the variable
  `return_catch_flags', but it turned out that the variable also
  counts the levels of `evalstring' so I decided to use `funcnest +
  sourcenest' instead.  The patch is tested with the above four cases.

--
Koichi

Attachment: 0001-builtins-common-get_exitstat-check-nest-levels-of-ru.patch
Description: Binary data


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