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Re: GPLv3 comedy unfolding -- raya's research on "The Four Freedoms"

From: David Kastrup
Subject: Re: GPLv3 comedy unfolding -- raya's research on "The Four Freedoms"
Date: Sat, 07 Oct 2006 15:31:53 +0200
User-agent: Gnus/5.11 (Gnus v5.11) Emacs/22.0.50 (gnu/linux)

Stefaan A Eeckels <> writes:

> On Sat, 07 Oct 2006 13:02:05 +0200
> David Kastrup <> wrote:
>> Uh, what?  The quoted section tries defining the term "UNIX", not the
>> term "operating system".
> Notice the qualification "time-sharing operating system kernel". If
> "operating system" would have been a synonym for kernel, Kernighan
> and Pike would not have felt it necessary to qualify the term.

The funny thing about this is that IIRC the expression "kernel" is
pretty much a UNIX invention, stressing the point that a standard
userspace toolbox should be considered mandatory for a workable

> Both quotes indicate that already in the early 80s, "operating
> system" had a broader meaning than merely the "kernel".

Do you have any evidence of the term "kernel" being used before, or
actually even outside of UNIX?  I think it likely that UNIX was the
main culprit for the informal erosion of "operating system" which has
not really managed to make it fully back to academia (you'll find
"operating system theory" courses, but hardly "kernel theory").

David Kastrup, Kriemhildstr. 15, 44793 Bochum

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