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Re: Website translations with Haunt

From: ng0
Subject: Re: Website translations with Haunt
Date: Sat, 9 Dec 2017 18:15:29 +0000

Hey Florian,

interesting work. I opened a bug a very long time ago for Guix,
and the content applied to Guile (as well as to the project
I initiated (infotropique) and very likely many other Haunt
using websites like Haunt itself, 8sync, etc).

I've seen the first versions of this a while back in the code
for your website, I'll check out the changes soon, exciting work!

My idea was a reimplementation of prep (a text format and html document
generator that is capable to include multiple languages in its source
files, written by lynX back in the early 90s (or earlier) iirc (and
still used today).

pelzflorian (Florian Pelz) transcribed 7.6K bytes:
> Hello,
> First of all, I want to say thank you to the Guile, Haunt, ffi-helper
> and related projects’ developers.
> I built my personal website [1] using David Thompson’s Haunt [2] and
> recently talked my university’s Islamic Students’ Association
> (Islamische Hochschulvereinigung) into using Haunt for their
> not-yet-finished website as well, because I think the concept of Haunt
> and SHTML is superior to alternatives.  However in order to make the
> website multilingual (the user can choose to view it in German or
> English) so far I used an association list with assoc-ref which is not
> very comfortable since all strings have to be added in two places,
> i.e. in the SHTML code and in the association list where the code
> looks for translations.
> I want to ask for your thoughts on my new solution since translations
> are probably important to many Haunt users.  In particular, I believe
> there was some discussion on Website translation on the Guile or Guix
> lists as well.
> I did not want to use the ordinary gettext functions in order to not
> call setlocale very often to switch languages.  It seems the Gettext
> system is not designed for rapidly changing locales, but maybe I am
> wrong about this and very many setlocale calls would not be that bad.
> Using Matt Wette’s ffi-helper [3] and the libgettextpo from GNU
> Gettext, [4] I now wrote code to convert a po file into an association
> list where I can now look up translations.  (Note that I had to make
> some patches to the c99dev branch of nyacc before building nyacc and
> ffi-helper because the Makefile had spaces instead of tabs at one
> place and it did not find guile and guild.  Maybe these patches were
> just necessary because of a broken setup on my part though.)
> I used this dot.ffi file to create libgettextpo bindings:
> (define-ffi-module (gettext-po)
>   #:include '("gettext-po.h")
>   #:library '("libgettextpo"))
> Then I wrote a procedure to convert a po file to an association list
> to look up the msgstr for a msgid.  Note that by lingua I basically
> mean a locale.
> (use-modules
>  (gettext-po)
>  (system ffi-help-rt)
>  ((system foreign)
>          #:prefix ffi:)
>  […])
> (define xerror-handler-struct
>   (make-struct-po_xerror_handler)) ; TODO SET HANDLERS:
> ;; […]
> (define (translations-for-lingua lingua)
>   "Returns po/<lingua>.po converted to an association list of msgid–msgstr 
> pairs."
>   (let* ((po-file
>           (po_file_read_v3
>            (string-append "po/" lingua ".po")
>            (pointer-to xerror-handler-struct)))
>          (translations
>           (if (ffi:null-pointer? (unwrap~pointer po-file))
>               '()
>               ;; otherwise:
>               (let ((iter (po_message_iterator po-file ffi:%null-pointer)))
>                 (let loop ((message (po_next_message iter)))
>                   (if (ffi:null-pointer? (unwrap~pointer message))
>                       (begin
>                         (po_message_iterator_free iter)
>                         '())
>                       ;; otherwise:
>                       (cons
>                        (cons
>                         (ffi:pointer->string (po_message_msgid message))
>                         (ffi:pointer->string (po_message_msgstr message)))
>                        (loop (po_next_message iter)))))))))
>     (if (not (ffi:null-pointer? (unwrap~pointer po-file)))
>         (po_file_free po-file))
>     translations))
> I did this for every locale and made a second association list mapping
> the locales to the msgid–msgstr association lists.  Then I wrote
> translated-msg to do the lookup.
> (define (translations-entry-for-lingua lingua)
>   "Returns a pair of LINGUA and an association list of its translations."
>   (cons
>    lingua
>    (translations-for-lingua lingua)))
> (define translated-msg
>   ;; gettext is not used directly because it would require repeated
>   ;; setlocale calls, which should not be necessary.
>   ;; See:
>   (let ((translation-lists
>          (map translations-entry-for-lingua linguas)))
>     (define (with-default value default)
>       (if value value
>           default))
>     (lambda (msgid lingua)
>       "Returns the msgstr for MSGID from the po file for LINGUA."
>       (let ((translations (assoc-ref translation-lists lingua)))
>         (with-default
>          (assoc-ref translations msgid)
>          msgid)))))
> As a Gettext-like shorthand I wrote a macro called _ which calls the
> above translated-msg function.  It takes the locale from the
> current-lingua variable, so the macro deliberately breaks hygiene.
> (define-syntax _
>   (lambda (x)
>     "Gettext-like shorthand for translated-msg with what currently is 
> current-lingua."
>     (syntax-case x ()
>       ((_ msg)
>        (with-syntax ((current-lingua (datum->syntax x 'current-lingua)))
>                     #'(translated-msg msg current-lingua))))))
> I use it like in this excerpt:
> (define (back-button-for-lingua lingua)
>   "SXML for a link back to the home page."
>   (let ((current-lingua lingua))
>     `(a (@ (href ,(string-append "/index" "-" lingua ".html"))
>            (class "full-width-link"))
>         ,(_ "← Back to home page"))))
> Then I ran the xgettext program from the terminal to create a pot file
> from all strings marked with _.
> xgettext -f po/POTFILES -o po/pelzfloriande-website.pot --from-code=UTF-8 
> --copyright-holder="" --package-name="pelzfloriande-website" 
> --msgid-bugs-address="address@hidden" --keyword=_
> Xgettext autodetected all the strings that were marked for
> translation.  This is much better than my previous approach where I
> had to list all of them manually in a manually written association
> list.
> To create a po file from a pot file, I do the usual:
> cd po
> msginit -l de --no-translator
> msginit -l en --no-translator
> Then I filled out the po files using gtranslator.  I can now run
> “haunt build” with an appropriate GUILE_LOAD_PATH, for me currently:
> GUILE_LOAD_PATH=$HOME/keep/projects/pelzfloriande-website:$HOME/build/nyacc/src/nyacc/examples:$GUILE_LOAD_PATH
> GUILE_LOAD_COMPILED_PATH=$GUILE_LOAD_COMPILED_PATH:$HOME/.cache/guile/ccache/2.2-LE-8-3.A/home/florian/keep/projects/pelzfloriande-website
>  haunt build
> Is this the right approach?
> You can find my unfinished, not very clean code at [5].
> Regards,
> Florian
> [1]
> [2]
> [3]
> [4]
> [5] 

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