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Re: [Paparazzi-devel] Tiny v2.11 - Programming help required

From: David Buzz Carlson
Subject: Re: [Paparazzi-devel] Tiny v2.11 - Programming help required
Date: Sat, 06 Sep 2008 12:47:37 +0300
User-agent: Thunderbird (X11/20080724)

Looking through his airframe file, it seems he is using ADC_6 for his vertical IR sensor. However, would have me believe that IRV is ADC_0. I believe ADC_0 is the correct one, can anybody confirm that for me?


address@hidden wrote:

I believe the maxstream packages use an FTDI USB-to-serial converter chip (everything in linux is chip-specific). The FTDI driver is already present and functional in Ubuntu so you may be all set. Type "dmesg | tail" after plugging in the modem and look for something about ftdi on ttyusb0 or such.
The ground modem can be any baud you want.  Maxtream and some others allow independent 
configuration of the RF baud and serial port baud to allow the air and ground serial baud 
rates to be unequal so long as the RF rates are equal.  Make sure your ap and airborne 
modem are at the same baud (-DUART0_BAUD=B9600 in your case) and same for the gcs (link 
line should have "-s 9600" or such to match the ground modem) and make sure 
your modems are each configured for their appropriate baud rates as well (maybe 9600 is 
the default?).

The RC modes are set in conf/radios/*.xml but I don't know how those settings 
get mapped to channels 1 thru 8.  I usually use the transmitter programming to 
change the channel of my switch until I find the one that works.

Your airframe file looks ok but I should point out that the GPS failsafe values on many 
of the cvs airframes are strange, specifying 30% throttle, 30 degree pitch up, and 17 
degree roll in the event of a total loss of GPS position info.  It sounds to me more like 
a wild spin, throttle-on crash and lipo fire.  I advise something more like 0 throttle, 
10 deg up and 17 roll or whatever produces a gentle circling glide on your airframe.  I 
think these pitch/roll values are used in "kill" mode as well so you can test 
them in the air.
Fashion Design Education - Click Here!



I have a Tiny v2.11 autopilot with all the hardware needed for autonomous flight. I have started on the programming, but have run into a few difficulties.

I have installed all the hardware in my aircraft, but have not gotten any further than that succesfully. I am meant to be demonstrating autonomous flight a week from now, so it would be really great if I could get the autopilot fully working by then.

I am new to Linux, and have run into some problems regarding the programming. It would be extremely helpful if you could provide some assistance. I am using Ubuntu 8.04.1 - Hardy Heron

I have been studying the Wiki and following it very closely.

This is what I need help with:

- Installing the drivers for the radio modem (the ground-station modem. It plugs into the USB port and grabs the serial signals. I'm sure you know all about this... The readme file that came with it says that I need to compile the driver into a 'Loadable Kernel Module' but I am unsure how to do this. The modem I am using is a Digi (Maxstream) 9XTend operating on 900MHz. I have been told that I may not need to install the driver, but can you please advise me on what to do.

- Configuring the rc radio settings: I am using a 6-channel JR Radio. I have found (using a scope) that my JR R700 7-channel receiver outputs the ppm signal through the 'signal' pin in the battery connector. I can attach a picture of the signal if you want. Also, how do you choose which channel determines the mode? (Auto 1, Auto 2, Manual).

- Configuring the airframe file: I have had a go at making my own airframe file (following the wiki), but are not sure if it is correct. I have pasted the code at the bottom. My airframe is very simple: A 3-Channel Easystar. It also hope to be able to trigger a servo for controlling the shutter on a camera at a set position, but I will keep it simple and focus on achieving autonomous flight first.

It would really be great if you could help me get this working within the next week.

Thankyou very much,


Here is my airframe code:

<!DOCTYPE airframe SYSTEM "airframe.dtd">

<airframe name="EASYSTAR">
 <!-- tiny v2.11 airframe -->

<!-- commands section -->
    <servo name="THROTTLE"  no="0" min="1000" neutral="1500" max="2000"/>
    <servo name="RUDDER"  no="2" min="1000" neutral="1500" max="2000"/>
    <servo name="ELEVATOR" no="6" min="1000" neutral="1500" min="2000"/>

    <axis name="THROTTLE" failsafe_value="0"/>
    <axis name="YAW"     failsafe_value="0"/>
    <axis name="PITCH"    failsafe_value="0"/>

    <set command="THROTTLE" value="@THROTTLE"/>
    <set command="ROLL"     value="@ROLL"/>
    <set command="PITCH"    value="@PITCH"/>

    <set servo="THROTTLE" value="@THROTTLE"/>
    <set servo="RUDDER" value="@ROLL"/>
<set servo="ELEVATOR" value="@PITCH"/>

  <section name="AUTO1" prefix="AUTO1_">
    <define name="MAX_ROLL" value="0.6"/>
    <define name="MAX_PITCH" value="0.6"/>

  <section name="adc" prefix="ADC_CHANNEL_">
    <define name="IR1" value="ADC_0"/>
    <define name="IR2" value="ADC_1"/>
    <define name="IR_TOP" value="ADC_6"/>


  <section name="INFRARED" prefix="IR_">
    <define name="ADC_IR1_NEUTRAL" value="512"/>
    <define name="ADC_IR2_NEUTRAL" value="512"/>
    <define name="ADC_TOP_NEUTRAL" value="512"/>
    <define name="IR2_SIGN" value="-1"/>
    <define name="TOP_SIGN" value="-1"/>
    <define name="HORIZ_SENSOR_TILTED" value="1"/>
    <define name="LATERAL_CORRECTION" value="1"/>
    <define name="LONGITUDINAL_CORRECTION" value="1"/>
    <define name="VERTICAL_CORRECTION" value="1"/>
    <define name="ROLL_NEUTRAL_DEFAULT" value="0" unit="deg"/>
    <define name="PITCH_NEUTRAL_DEFAULT" value="0" unit="deg"/>
    <define name="CORRECTION_UP" value="1"/>
    <define name="CORRECTION_DOWN" value="1"/>
    <define name="CORRECTION_LEFT" value="1"/>
    <define name="CORRECTION_RIGHT" value="1"/>


  <section name="BAT">
    <define name="MILLIAMP_PER_PERCENT" value="0.86"/>
    <define name="CATASTROPHIC_BAT_LEVEL" value="5.5" unit="V"/>
<section name="MISC">
    <define name="NOMINAL_AIRSPEED" value="7" unit="m/s"/>
    <define name="CARROT" value="5." unit="s"/>
    <define name="KILL_MODE_DISTANCE" value="(1.5*MAX_DIST_FROM_HOME)"/>
    <define name="CONTROL_RATE" value="60" unit="Hz"/>
<section name="PID">
    <define name="ROLL_PGAIN" value="5000."/>
    <define name="PITCH_OF_ROLL" value="0.25"/>
    <define name="PITCH_PGAIN" value="10000."/>
    <define name="MAX_ROLL" value="0.35"/>
    <define name="MAX_PITCH" value="0.35"/>
    <define name="MIN_PITCH" value="-0.35"/>
    <define name="AILERON_OF_THROTTLE" value="0.0"/>
    <define name="CRUISE_THROTTLE" value="0.35"/>
<section name="ALT" prefix="CLIMB_">
    <define name="PITCH_PGAIN" value="-0.05"/>
    <define name="PITCH_IGAIN" value="0.075"/>
    <define name="PGAIN" value="-0.01"/>
    <define name="IGAIN" value="0.1"/>
    <define name="MAX" value="1."/>
    <define name="PITCH_OF_VZ_PGAIN" value="0.05"/>
    <define name="THROTTLE_OF_CLIMB" value="0.15" unit="%/(m/s)"/>
<section name="HORIZONTAL CONTROL" prefix="H_CTL_">
    <define name="COURSE_PGAIN" value="-0.4"/>
    <define name="ROLL_MAX_SETPOINT" value="0.6" unit="radians"/>
    <define name="PITCH_MAX_SETPOINT" value="0.5" unit="radians"/>
    <define name="PITCH_MIN_SETPOINT" value="-0.5" unit="radians"/>

    <define name="ROLL_PGAIN" value="5000."/>
    <define name="AILERON_OF_THROTTLE" value="0.0"/>
    <define name="PITCH_PGAIN" value="-9000."/>
    <define name="PITCH_DGAIN" value="1.5"/>
<!-- roll rate loop -->
    <define name="ROLL_RATE_MODE_DEFAULT" value="1"/>
    <define name="ROLL_RATE_SETPOINT_PGAIN" value="-5." unit="rad/s/rad"/>
    <define name="ROLL_RATE_MAX_SETPOINT" value="10"/>
    <define name="LO_THROTTLE_ROLL_RATE_PGAIN" value="1000."/>
    <define name="HI_THROTTLE_ROLL_RATE_PGAIN" value="1000."/>
    <define name="ROLL_RATE_IGAIN" value="0"/>
    <define name="ROLL_RATE_DGAIN" value="0"/>
    <define name="ROLL_RATE_SUM_NB_SAMPLES" value="64"/>


  <section name="VERTICAL CONTROL" prefix="V_CTL_">

    <define name="POWER_CTL_BAT_NOMINAL" value="6" unit="volt"/>
    <!-- outer loop proportional gain -->
    <define name="ALTITUDE_PGAIN" value="-0.03"/>
    <!-- outer loop saturation -->
    <define name="ALTITUDE_MAX_CLIMB" value="2."/>

    <!-- auto throttle inner loop -->
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_NOMINAL_CRUISE_THROTTLE" value="0.4"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_MIN_CRUISE_THROTTLE" value="0.30"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_MAX_CRUISE_THROTTLE" value="0.80"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_LOITER_TRIM" value="1500"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_DASH_TRIM" value="-1000"/>
<define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_CLIMB_THROTTLE_INCREMENT" value="0.15" unit="%/(m/s)"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_PGAIN" value="-0.01"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_IGAIN" value="0.1"/>
    <define name="AUTO_THROTTLE_PITCH_OF_VZ_PGAIN" value="0.05"/>

    <!-- auto pitch inner loop -->
    <define name="AUTO_PITCH_PGAIN" value="-0.05"/>
    <define name="AUTO_PITCH_IGAIN" value="0.075"/>
    <define name="AUTO_PITCH_MAX_PITCH" value="0.35"/>
    <define name="AUTO_PITCH_MIN_PITCH" value="-0.35"/>

   <define name="THROTTLE_SLEW" value="0.1"/>


  <section name="NAV">
    <define name="NAV_PITCH" value="0.0"/>
    <define name="NAV_GLIDE_PITCH_TRIM" value="0.2"/>
    <define name="DEFAULT_CIRCLE_RADIUS" value="100" unit="m"/>

  <section name="AGGRESSIVE" prefix="AGR_">
<define name="CLIMB_THROTTLE" value="0.95"/><!-- Throttle for Aggressive Climb --> <define name="DESCENT_THROTTLE" value="0.1"/><!-- Throttle for Aggressive Decent --> <define name="CLIMB_PITCH" value="0.3"/><!-- Pitch for Aggressive Climb --> <define name="DESCENT_PITCH" value="-0.25"/><!-- Pitch for Aggressive Decent --> <define name="BLEND_START" value="20"/><!-- Altitude Error to Initiate Aggressive Climb CANNOT BE ZERO!!--> <define name="BLEND_END" value="10"/><!-- Altitude Error to Blend Aggressive to Regular Climb Modes CANNOT BE ZERO!!--> <define name="CLIMB_NAV_RATIO" value="0.8"/><!-- Percent Navigation for Altitude Error Equal to Start Altitude -->
    <define name="DESCENT_NAV_RATIO" value="1.0"/>

  <section name="FAILSAFE" prefix="FAILSAFE_">
    <define name="DELAY_WITHOUT_GPS" value="1" unit="s"/>
        <define name="DEFAULT_THROTTLE" value="0.3" unit="%"/>
        <define name="DEFAULT_ROLL" value="0.3" unit="rad"/>
        <define name="DEFAULT_PITCH" value="0.5" unit="rad"/>
    <define name="HOME_RADIUS" value="100" unit="m"/>
  <section name="DATALINK" prefix="DATALINK_">
    <define name="DEVICE_TYPE" value="PPRZ"/>
    <define name="DEVICE_ADDRESS" value="...."/>

include $(PAPARAZZI_SRC)/conf/autopilot/tiny.makefile


ap.srcs = sys_time.c $(SRC_ARCH)/sys_time_hw.c $(SRC_ARCH)/armVIC.c main_fbw.c main_ap.c main.c

ap.CFLAGS += -DLED_3_BANK=0 -DLED_3_PIN=17 -DLED_4_BANK=0 -DLED_4_PIN=18 -DLED_5_BANK=0 -DLED_5_PIN=19 -DLED_6_BANK=0 -DLED_6_PIN=20

ap.srcs += commands.c

ap.CFLAGS += -DACTUATORS=\"servos_4015_hw.h\" -DSERVOS_4015
ap.srcs += actuators.c $(SRC_ARCH)/servos_4015_hw.c

ap.srcs += radio_control.c $(SRC_ARCH)/ppm_hw.c ap.CFLAGS += -DDOWNLINK -DUSE_UART0 -DDOWNLINK_TRANSPORT=PprzTransport -DDOWNLINK_FBW_DEVICE=Uart0 -DDOWNLINK_AP_DEVICE=Uart0 -DPPRZ_UART=Uart0 -DDATALINK=PPRZ -DUART0_BAUD=B9600 ap.srcs += downlink.c $(SRC_ARCH)/uart_hw.c datalink.c pprz_transport.c latlong.c

ap.srcs += inter_mcu.c

ap.srcs += $(SRC_ARCH)/adc_hw.c


ap.srcs += gps_ubx.c gps.c

ap.srcs += infrared.c estimator.c

ap.srcs += nav.c fw_h_ctl.c fw_v_ctl.c nav_survey_rectangle.c nav_line.c

ap.srcs += gyro.c

# Harware In The Loop


# Config for SITL simulation
include $(PAPARAZZI_SRC)/conf/autopilot/sitl.makefile
sim.srcs += nav_survey_rectangle.c traffic_info.c nav_line.c


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